Existing interoperability systems can be differentiated by determining who assumes the responsibility of mirroring information across blockchains.
Overview of Interoperability Systems:
The following pverview categorizes existing interoperability systems by the chosen approach for verifying crosschain data:
Cheap/fast, easy to build, & extend
Chain's own validator set verifies xchain data. Typically done by running a light client of origin chain inside of the destination chain's VM
IBC, Near Rainbowbridge, BTC Relay, rollup entry/exit
3rd party validator set verifies data across chains. AKA PoS/MPC systems
Thorchain, Anyswap, Synapse, Hyphen, etc.
N-party system is reduced to 1:1 interaction, very easy to keep trust-minimized
Connext, Hop, simple atomic swaps